Thursday, May 21, 2020

Introduction. The Very Controversial Issue Being Discussed

Introduction The very controversial issue being discussed in this debate is the question should vaccinations such as HPV be mandated for teenage girls? Two different views are offered. This controversy began when the issue was introduced to the real world in 2006. The FDA announced a prophylactic vaccine against 4 strains of HPV. Most importantly is the fact that this vaccination has about a 70% protection against cervical cancers linked to HPV. More CDC recommends routine vaccination for 11-12-year-old girls. It also recommends 13-26-year-old girls who did not have the opportunity for the vaccinations when they were younger. This three-dose vaccination costs about $375, making this vaccination one of the most expensive. In 2007†¦show more content†¦Charo argues that vaccinations against the human papillomavirus, which is the cause of most cervical cancer cases, should be mandatory with only medical, religious, or philosophical exceptions. B. In the second article Gail Javitt, Deena Berkowitz, and Lawrence O. Gostin argue that there are several issues of concern. In this article, they make a distinction between long term safety and the effectiveness of the vaccine is unknown. They present the concern of these risks and they should be weighed against the states interest in protecting the public from these harms. They have several strong arguments that support the decision that government mandated HPV vaccinations are premature. First statement is that long term safety and effectiveness is unknown. ACIP recommendations are based on assumptions regarding the length of duration for immunity and age of sexual debut. They believe the vaccination is not justified for mandating regarding historical â€Å"public health necessity† principle. Next is the concern that the government is overreaching their authority. They argue this can lead to risk of public backlash. Distrust by the public and confusion regarding gove rnment for profit rather than public health. In conclusion mandating HPV vaccinations would be premature and ill- advised. The distrust could lead to undermining of the current vaccination efforts. C. I will agree with article #2Show MoreRelatedScientific Management - Taylorism Essay990 Words   |  4 Pagesdownfall of scientific management in today’s service economy and furthermore has allowed for the introduction of improved managerial methods. The issues and disadvantages of scientific management will be further discussed and explained why it is no longer considered relevant in our modern day service economy. With the introduction of scientific management in the work organisation there has been a controversial debate over the changes that occur within the workplace. Do the disadvantages of scientificRead MoreWhy Iasb Should Reopen Controversial Issues1559 Words   |  7 PagesWhether IASB should reopen controversial issues in Chapter 1 and Chapter 3 I. Introduction The revision of the conceptual framework influences the controversial issues in the chapter one and chapter three about whether IASB should increase the status of stewardship or accountability, replace reliability into faithfully representation and remove the word ‘prudence’ which is one of the core quality principles in the previous conceptual framework. This essay is going to consider those three controversiesRead MoreThe Development Of Elderly Patients1495 Words   |  6 PagesINTRODUCTION Today in healthcare, elderly patients are becoming increasingly more common as a result of the aging baby boomers. This rise in the aging population has led to more hospitalization and hospice care of terminally ill and end of life patients. This phase in a patient’s life is often difficult and, as nurses, it is important to make this experience as comfortable and as peaceful as possible. Often times this can be challenging because the multitude of feelings being experienced andRead MoreStop And Frisk Has Been A Very Controversial Topic For829 Words   |  4 Pages Stop and Frisk has been a very controversial topic for quite some time, especially throughout the last election cycle. It is defined as the circumstance where a police officer will temporarily detain an individual, who they have reasonable suspicion that the individual could be armed and/or dangerous, and pat down their clothing. This issue has been of grand concern for a multitude of individuals due to the inc reased fear in the minority communities, who have been declared more likely to be stoppedRead MoreThe Controversy Of Euthanasia And Euthanasia1385 Words   |  6 Pages‘Help me doctor,’ he is assuming that his doctor is on the side of his life.† This quote by Dr.Margaret Cottle , who is a palliative care physician , shows the mentality that most patients have when it comes to patient care. Euthanasia is a very controversial topic that has been debated on throughout the years. Whether it may be active euthanasia, passive euthanasia, voluntary euthanasia, involuntary euthanasia, indirect or physician assisted the morals and reasoning behind each are controversialRead MoreEnvironmental Case Analysis: the Risks of Global Climate Change1185 Words   |  5 PagesEnvironmental Case Analysis: The Risks of Global Climate Change Introduction The natural world seems to be deteriorating around us, and it seems to be our fault. We are uncertain about the extent of the deterioration, the means that would reverse it, and the prospects for human life in the future (Newton, Dillingham, Choly, 2006, p. x). The environment and its protection is an extremely serious issue. Many environmental issues exist including endangered species, waste pollution, over populationRead MoreAnalysis Of Retouch Yourself : The Pleasures And Politics Of Digital Cosmetic Surgery1429 Words   |  6 Pageslook on society, and how with technology progressing it has become easier to create and have the perfect body look you have always wanted. The questions being raised throughout the chapter is if this new founded process was morally right, is it right to remove someone’s identity and imperfections just so they can fit into this bracket of being perfect. A debate in 1982 asked commercial operators this: â€Å"If a person has an habitual freckled face, and you touch out the freckles in the picture isRead MoreEthical Issue And The Ethical Dilemma882 Words   |  4 PagesLeadership Ethics Introduction In this week’s assignment, we have been asked to identify an ethical issue presented in the Devise Products Unlimited (DPU) case study. First we will discuss the issue and the ethical dilemma it creates. Next we will look at possible recommendations for the DPU CEO to handle this issue. The Ethical Issue First, let’s start by looking at what the ethical issue that DPU is facing. The issue that I have chosen to focus on is issue two from the case study:Read MoreThe Debate On Homosexuality And Homosexuality1229 Words   |  5 PagesKirsten Brockhoff Panel Presentation Paper Christian Ethics October 20, 2014 Homosexuality Homosexuality is defined as, the sexual or romantic attraction to members of the same gender. A male who practices homosexuality is known as being gay. The word ‘gay’ did not originally have any connection to a sexual connotation. In fact, the word was originally express feelings of happiness or carefree attitude. It was not until the twentieth century that people used the term gay to indicate a sexual orientationRead MoreOpen Source Security and The Kerchoff ´s Principle880 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction This lecture was given by Dr. David Mirza Ahmad one of chief mentors of Subgraph, which is a open-source security start-up based out in Montreal. The talk was based on Kerchoff’s principle which states â€Å"the security of any cryptographic system does not rest in its secrecy; it must be able to fall into the enemy’s hand without inconvenience† [1]. The kerchoff’s principle underlines the fact that free software should be having reasonably good security. This fact is well understood

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Is There Any Objectivity in Journalism and Public...

First of all I would like to examine the job of a journalist strongly believe that the main skill a journalist should have is the ability to get the news or information and give it to the people without changing it. By being honest and telling the truth and by having reliable sources, a journalist manages to gain respect and esteem. In order to be a good professional, a journalist has to work in many levels. It is very important to make research, to take photos or videos and to be sure of the authenticity of the story. Then the story should be written with objectivity before being published to newspapers, magazines, websites, the radio or on TV. People should be informed properly. If the information or the facts are presented as they are,†¦show more content†¦So someone who wants to be objective must put over if he has any interest of the event, also to have clear mind and be able to transfer exactly what he saw or listened. In addition, that person who is going to transfer a fact it cannot have a bias. On the other hand a subjective person is when he sees something and when he has to transfer it to others he says the fact as it happened but he also tells his opinion. It is exactly the opposite of objectivity. To sum up, someone who wants to be objective must not judge things from his point of view alone, but in terms of reality, because if he tells his opinion then it comes a subjectivity. As we said above a journalist must be objective. The meaning of that is to transfer the facts as they are without using his or her opinion. According to that, we can say also that journalists have benefits or reasons to hide the truth or to change it because they may lose their jobs if they write something that can offend a person who is high in the hierarchy and if he does something like that he can lose his job. In addition, according to the article â€Å"What is the Difference Between Public Relations and Journalism†? (Tony 2010) Rogers, it gives us an example about a journalist who has to write for an event that happened in a school. It was about a disease which

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Human Behavior And Inner Emotion - 1329 Words

Various types of theories have been established throughout history to help analyze social behavior in both animals and people. Psychologists use the six main perspectives to better rationalize human behavior and motivation: these perspectives are (but not limited to) the biological, social-cultural, cognitive, developmental, psychodynamic, and behavioral perspectives. These approaches helps psychologists and individuals further their understanding of social behavior and inner emotion. In psychology, a biological perspective is imperative to understanding the brain and behavior. Biological psychology refers to the biological study of animals and humans, as well as the function of their immune system and brain chemistry. This is closely related to neuroscience and biology as a fundamental role in determining our behavior and how it corresponds with inherited genetics. The Biological Perspective, also referred to as biopsychology or psychobiology, is the only approach that studies emotions from the perspective of biology (McLeod, 2015); it is belief that all outward and inward behavior have a biological reason behind it. Animal research plays a fundamental role in biopsychology: apes have been able to help make countless discoveries about cognitive function of intelligent beings, including humans. Studies on rats, birds, and other small animals have provided crucial information on basic mammal needs (Research with Animals in Psychology). Psychologists who study theShow MoreRelatedThe Truth About Behavior, Emotions And Emotional Intelligence1499 Words   |  6 PagesThe Truth About Behaviour, Emotions and Emotional Intelligence After over 10 years in studying human behaviour from the psychological and the sociological perspectives in detail I am left with only one conclusion and that is that human behaviour is not governed by the cognitive functioning domain, but human behavior is governed by the inner soul of man, which technically speaking means the Inner Interactive System of man. The main reason that we are not governed by our thinking is because eachRead MoreThe Heart Of The Self Determination Theory937 Words   |  4 Pagespeople believe humans are empty organisms; however, is it assumed by the meta-theory that we are inherently active and inclined by nature toward inner organization. This means that even as children we all inherit an instinct to organize and support our inner self in order to grow successfully. Through the meta-theory, self-determination theory was built (Deci et al, 2013). The heart of the self-determination theory is based around three autonomous behaviors. These three behaviors a re intrinsicallyRead MoreHuman Potential Is A Concept That Was Introduced By Early Personality Theorists892 Words   |  4 PagesHuman potential is a concept that was introduced by early personality theorists many years ago, and it implies that as humans, we have an innate tendency toward personal growth and development, and under the right circumstances, this tendency will lead us to actualize our potential and become all that we can be (Deci, Ryan, Guay, 2013, p. 109). In other words, each and every person has their own inner potential, and it just takes the right conditions to realize it. According to the self-determinationRead MoreA Confrontation With The Privacy Of The Mind932 Words   |  4 Pagesphilosophical problem of considering minds belonging to others is posed. The issue mainly revolves around privileged access, which restricts someone’s knowledge of experiences and thoughts to his or her own mind. By critically observing this particular human limitation, a reflection on the standard account of knowledge, â€Å"Other Minds†, and class discussions thus far will further explore the implications and possible methods of attempting to resolve this problem in epistemology. Specifically this will addressRead MoreMary Shelley s Frankenstein And The Human Nature1029 Words   |  5 PagesThere are many places in Mary Shelley’s book Frankenstein that refer to the human nature; different components of it is represented through almost every character. For instance, Elizabeth possibly epitomizes the benevolence, compassion, and empathy of humanity. Other characters symbolize aspects as well; Victor is curiosity and obsession, Henry is adventure and creativity, Caroline is selflessness and love, etc. My personal favorite, however, is the creature that was created by Victor FrankensteinRead MoreArt Is An Essential Part Of Life1338 Words   |  6 Pagesrepresentation of reality, whereas its main purpose is the communion of a man to the beautiful, sensual and sometimes even to the inexplicable and contradictory. I think that movies, paintings, architectures and other arts should cause a variety of emotions, feelings and thoughts in the souls and minds of people. The fantasy painting â€Å"Catching Wishes† by Josephine Wall is of a woman having many desires but only reaching out to the one she wishes to have the most. This beautiful painting makes me feelRead MoreEmotionally Focused Couples Therapy On Increasing Emotional Responsiveness And Boding Interactions754 Words   |  4 Pagesclient’s experience, the acknow ledgement that humans choose creative, healthy choices when possible, a look at how inner and outer realities define each other, an understanding that we are all formed and transformed by our relationships and how new corrective experiences can be formed with personal encounters. EFT also draws from family Systems Theory in that causality is circular, behavior must be considered in the contest of the partner, homeostasis, all behaviors are communication and an effort is madeRead MoreAnalysis Of Pyszczynski, Greenberg And Solomon984 Words   |  4 Pagesconflict between the basic needs in SDT, under-estimation of anxiety in SDT and so on. This article specially aims to respond to how SDT explain dark sides of human nature and the comparison between SDT and TMT. Pyszczynski (2000) questioned the way SDT explained the dark side of human nature. SDT is sufficient for explaining the dark side of human nature: The optimal functioning will be achieved unless all three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness) are satisfied. The deprivationRead MoreThe, Marx, Engels, And Freud s Views On Society And Inner Examination Of Self Essay1671 Words   |  7 Pagesto alter the way our society viewed the human mind in his work, An Outline of Psychoanalysis. Together Marx, Engels, and Freud changed the way humans examined the relationship of our place in society but they presented the concepts differently through outward examinations of the society and the inner examinations of self. Freud attempted to examine how our society viewed the human mind by turning society’s attention inward and exploring the mind’s inner secrets. One of the large discoveries FreudRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations1208 Words   |  5 Pagesthe stories that they tell are a direct reflection of this behavior in their life, the results are stunning at times. Most of us might not even realize the amount of figurative weight we carry on our shoulders, it’s all just extra baggage. The baggage that we wear would be all of our combined emotions and expectations. No matter what you do, you will never escape the judgement of others (their expectations), your emotions, and your inner-judgement (and expectations). These judgements and expectations

Systems Analysis And Role Of The Systems Analyst - 2802 Words

Assignment 1 – Task 1 (P1) (P1 – 1) An explanation of what Systems Analysis is and the role of the Systems Analyst. Discuss Systems Analysis and the role of the Systems Analyst A system analyst is an important part of a business, who is usually an IT professional, specializing in analyzing, designing and implementing information systems. The primary role of a system analyst is to assess situations, and the suitability of information systems, and then study the problems and improvements needed within a certain organisation and come up with a way that these changes can be made effectively. It is the role of the system analyst to research problems, plan solutions, recommend software/systems and to overall co-ordinate the development of the†¦show more content†¦The system analyst will then examine the project thoroughly and go through any potential faults they think will cause a major issue for the company, and make plans to solve them as quickly and effectively as possible. The primary purpose of the system analyst at this stage is to gather information as much information as possible and determine any specific requirements needed for e.g. software, w hich will be specified in the requirements specification. The end product of the system analyst stage is known as the deliverable – which will be the end set of requirements that the analyst has chosen for the project. A system analyst can have the following duties: †¢ Interacting with any internal users/customers in order to learn and document any requirements †¢ Write up any specified technical requirements. †¢ Give presentations about their findings to clients and colleagues †¢ Interact with designers in order to understand software limitations. †¢ Help the programmers during system development †¢ Perform the system testing. †¢ Deploy the completed system. †¢ Document the system development contribute to user manuals and training. (P1 – 2) A discussion of the reasons why an organisation might initiate a Systems Analysis project†¦ TELOS. Discuss the reasons why an organisation might initiate a Systems Analysis project †¢ To improve efficiency †¢ Improve ease of use †¢ Make use of new technology †¢

Defense of Marriage Act Free Essays

In 1996, Congress enacted the Defense of Marriage Act (â€Å"DOMA†), which added the following definition to the United States Code: â€Å"†¦[T]he word â€Å"marriage† means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word â€Å"spouse† refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. † (Defense of Marriage Act sec. 3). We will write a custom essay sample on Defense of Marriage Act or any similar topic only for you Order Now Since the enactment of DOMA, however, five states (Iowa, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Vermont and Massachusetts) have come in direct conflict with the law by conferring full legal status to same-sex marriages. Thus, a same-sex couple may be legally married in their state of residence but would not be recognized as such under federal law. The Supreme Court, in light of its own binding precedent, must recognize that marriage, is a constitutionally-guaranteed, fundamental right of all citizens. Because DOMA interferes with such rights, it must be overturned as unconstitutional, and the federal government must recognize same-sex marriages performed legally in states where such marriages are permitted. In a landmark post-DOMA case, the Supreme Court overturned its earlier decision in Bowers v. Hardwick, and held that state anti-sodomy laws restricting consensual sexual behavior between adults, same-sex or otherwise, were unconstitutional (Lawrence v. Texas 558). The Court held â€Å"†¦that our laws and tradition afford constitutional protection to personal decisions relating to marriage, procreation, contraception, family relationships, child rearing, and education†¦. Persons in a homosexual relationship may seek autonomy [in making these choices]†¦ just as heterosexual persons do† (Lawrence v. Texas 574). States’ ability to define or limit marriage is further diluted by the equal protection doctrine. The right to marry is fundamental and, as such, cannot be defined so as to apply to citizens on an unequal basis or on the basis of classification. The equal protection doctrine is derived from the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution, which provides that no citizen of the United States or any state shall be denied â€Å"equal protection of the laws† (U. S. Constitution, amend. 14, sec. 1). Prior to 1996, the Supreme Court’s equal protection decisions progressively made strides toward greater personal freedoms and greater recognition of the fundamental rights of individuals. By defining marriage solely as a relationship between a man and a woman, Congress attempted to slam the door on decades of Supreme Court jurisprudence. The Supreme Court famously addressed the right to marry as a matter of equal protection in the 1967 decision of Loving v. Virginia. Striking down anti-miscegenation statutes in more than 20 states, the court held â€Å"[t]here can be no doubt that restricting the freedom to marry solely because of racial classifications violates the central meaning of the equal protection clause† (Loving v. Virginia 12). The Supreme Court has also recognized the right of prison inmates to marry (Turner v. Safley, 78). In so doing, the court addressed specifically whether the inability to consummate a marriage affects the constitutional protection afforded such a relationship. In her opinion for the court, Justice O’Connor wrote: â€Å"Many important attributes of marriage remain, however, after taking into account the limitations imposed by prison life†¦. [M]arriages†¦are expressions of emotional support and public commitment†¦hav[e] spiritual significance†¦ [and] [f]inally, marital status often is a precondition to the receipt of government benefits (e. g. , Social Security benefits), property rights (e. g. , tenancy by the entirety, inheritance rights), and other, less tangible benefits†¦. These incidents of marriage, like the religious and personal aspects of the marriage commitment, are unaffected by the fact of confinement or the pursuit of legitimate corrections goals. † (Turner v. Safley 95-96) All the minimal hallmarks of marriage enumerated by the Court in Turner can exist in a legal same-sex marriage; with the sole exception of the couple’s ability to obtain the federal government benefits denied them by DOMA. In a case that perhaps best encapsulates the Supreme Court’s belief in the breadth of the right to marry, the Court addressed a Wisconsin law that prevented people with child-support arrearages from marrying. (Zablocki v. Redhail, 434 U. S. 374 (1978)). In holding the law unconstitutional, the court stated that â€Å"[a]lthough Loving arose in the context of racial discrimination, prior and subsequent decisions of this Court confirm that the right to marry is of fundamental importance for all individuals† (Zablocki v. Redhail 384). If marriage is a right of â€Å"fundamental importance for all individuals,† (Id. ) it is necessarily a fundamental right for homosexual men and women. In conclusion, the Defense of Marriage Act and the federal government’s failure to recognize legal same-sex marriages are unconstitutional. DOMA illegally interferes with the fundamental right of homosexual individuals to choose whom they wish to marry. The United States was undergoing a major conservative revolution at the time DOMA was passed. The times have changed. As Justice Kennedy wrote in 2003, seven years after DOMA was enacted, â€Å"†¦[T]imes can blind us to certain truths and later generations can see that laws once thought necessary and proper in fact serve only to oppress. As the Constitution endures, persons in every generation can invoke its principles in their own search for greater freedom† (Lawrence v. Texas, 579). It is time for the Supreme Court of this generation to lift the oppression of DOMA and require the federal government to recognize legal same-sex marriages. Works Cited Defense of Marriage Act, U. S. Statutes at Large 2419 (1996): sec. 3. Desylva v. Ballentine, 351 U. S. 570 (1956). Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U. S. 558 (2003). Loving v. Virginia, 388 U. S. 1, 12 (1967). Turner v. Safley, 482 U. S. 78 (1987). Zablocki v. Redhail, 434 U. S. 374 (1978). How to cite Defense of Marriage Act, Papers

I Want a Wife Essay Example For Students

I Want a Wife Essay Donya Pittman English III Period 2 Aug, 25, 10 ‘I Want a Wife’ A In 1971 when the essay â€Å"I Want A Wife† was written it was the height of the feminist movement. During this time women were rising and speaking out about the classification of themselves as second class citizens to men. Inspired by the recent amendment giving women the right to vote, which was in the 1940’s, Judy Brady, wrote the satirical essay † I Want a Wife†. The purpose of the essay is to give a blatant unfair depiction of the conditions of the common â€Å"wife† during this time. Brady uses the male view-point and their inherent selfishness to persuade her audience which is both single and married women but Brady also tries to reach out to the husband audience by trying to get them to see how self-centered the expectations of the common wife is. By reveling how repressed men are making women they might try for a change. Brady’s argument is effective because of her use of ethos logos and pathos. In the beginning of the essay Brady establishes a sense of credibility by showing that she herself is a wife. Brady, establishing herself as a wife is immensely important to get her audience’s attention and respect because she has firsthand experience in what it is like to be a woman and a wife during this time. Since her audience is mainly married and unmarried women Brady makes herself approachable as a writer with some authority on the topic of the unjustness of the common marriage. With this leading use of ethos, Brady not only gives her writing integrity, she also successfully gets the audiences respect and that opens them up to being susceptible to her argument. Brady’s use of pathos is also a huge part of why her argument is so greatly accepted. Being that no one, not even a woman, would like to be treated as described in the essay Brady conveys a plethora of emotions for the reader. She tells and even over exaggerates the stresses of everyday life and the unrealistic, selfish and servant like expectations for the wife of a husband. Brady, knowing that her audience is mainly women, targets in on the buried frustrations of the overwhelming responsibilities placed upon them giving them the inspiration for the change Brady is arguing for. Another important device that Brady subjects the audience to is logos. Through the passage Brady tells of the drastic measures wives are expected to go through. The expectations that are place are so extremely unrealistic and improbable with just one wife that the reader can see the illogical expectations for what they are. The repletion of â€Å"I want† shows the audience the selfishness and gets them to see that husbands can’t have everything they want and that while it’s a nice idea to have a servant as a wife is not a healthy relationship but more of slavery. In conclusion, Brady successfully conveys her argument using ethos, logos and pathos. She also uses sarcasm to prove her point of view regarding the selfishness of men towards women. In the article I want is used more than 15 times. The repletion is a clear sign of that selfishness she tells of men displaying toward women. Brady’s style encourages action from women and even men to stop and think of women as equals to their partners and to not have such heavy burdens but to share the weight.

Friday, April 24, 2020

Management of a Diverse Workforce

Globalization has facilitated the growth of multinational; an increasing number of companies are diversifying their operations in different part of the globe. When operating in the international arena, a company has to manage a diverse work force; managing diverse human capital has continued to be a challenge to human resources managers.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Management of a Diverse Workforce specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main challenge is how to develop a universal performance management system amidst changes occurring in different environment that affect personnel differently. With diverse human capital, companies need to develop strategic human resource management practices, which will provide the company with global consistency of purpose as far as human performance management is concerned. One major role that strategic international human management (SIHM) plays is to manage diverse human ca pital performance; performance management is a continuous process through which the output of human capital is gauged to ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner. The policy addresses activities affecting the performance of human capital in the efforts of formulating and implementing strategic needs that will facilitate an improve business within an organization; to undertake this task in a diverse human resources capital, is a challenge to personnel managers (Fernandez-Alles Ramos-Rodrà ­guez, 2009). This paper looks into the problems encountered by human resources managers when performance managing their human capital from a diverse origin, it will also offer some suggestions on ways that the problems can be minimized. Problems of performance managing in diverse human capital Human resources are precious, they need to be managed effectively; when developing a personnel’s management strategy; an organization needs to have an effecti ve performance appraisal and rewarding system. When an effective performance management is implemented, it boosts employees’ confidence and motivates them.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Performance management is defined as a continuous process that involves assessment of an employee in all dimensions with the aim of rewarding and establishing areas that can be improved for better performance. When dealing with the international human resources management, there are three focus areas that managers have to look into, they are inter-unit linkage, internal operations, and competitive requirements; all the above areas have challenges they pose to personnel management (Hampden–Turner Trompenaars, 2006). To handle this section effectively, this section will look into every area and the problems/challenges associated: Inter-linkage issues Diverse human capital has a variety of human components that need to be managed effectively; the differences in how people of different cultures, believes, traditions and values have offers the performance managers the problems of establishing key performance parameters. When appraising the performance of an employee in the global arenas, factors that are likely to impact on his performance need to be well understood; in the case of an expatriate, he is likely to be affected by culture of the new country, job requirements and personal attributes. When appraising and gauging the level of performance of such an employee, the above variables should be put into consideration. External and internal environment has an impact on the general performance of the company; the ease of adoption and the environment that an expatriate operated in determines whether he will be able to work effectively and pose satisfying results at the end of the year.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Management of a Diverse Workforce specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When appraising an expatriate, the culture adoption rate of the expatriate should be considered, they should be one of the parameters that need to be taken into account; the issue comes with how the human resource managers gauge the rate of adoption (Maznevski DiStefano, 2000). Internal operations An effective human resources management should ensure that internal operations of an organization are operating in their optimal form; human capital have the role of ensuring the operations are to the expected standards; the issue that face multinationals is how to control the internal structures in their absences. Internal management is based on information from output and the inputs offered by human resource of a company; people have different viewpoints thus in a diverse human capital environment, the information that will be available for management to react on will be diverse and inc omparable. This make developing of internal similar business policies become a challenge to multinationals. Other than internal business operations, different countries have different labor policies that are mostly determined by the rate of economic development of the country that a multinational is operating. The company has to ensure that it complies with the rules; the move may call for special or micro human resources policies that are challenging to manage. For example, there are countries that have wage limits while others do not have, others have fifty-five as the retirement age while others have sixty years, and this poses a challenge to personnel management. An effective performance process helps an organization to learn and understand its staffs strengths, weaknesses, talents and capabilities. When the above attributes of employees are known, then a company can devise appropriate motivational, rewarding, training and mentoring programs to enhance performance within the org anization. When gauging the strengths and weaknesses of human staffs, management faces the challenge of harmonizing the available technological developments and favorability of production across different countries.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sometimes a company may think that a certain employee is highly effective and a high performer but this is only facilitated by the level of technological development and the rate at which the business is doing in the country of establishment. On the other hand, another employee who operates in an area of low technological development, and the business there is not as favorable, then the employee is gauged as a poor performer. The differences in technological development and general condition in the country of establishment can thus become an issue in performance management. Multinationals have to keep in touch with the situation on the ground for all countries as well as implement measures that will ensure that an equitable performance appraisal is conducted putting all the parameters affecting the situation at hand. International business communities are volatile and keep changing with changes in political, economical and social situations; management when appraising the level of p erformance has the task of ensuring they keep adjusting their policies with the situation on the ground; this will enhance the development of appropriate policies of management. The changes in political situation keep affecting the rate of operation in an organization thus to effectively performance appraise, managers have the role of implementing flexible performance appraisal models of which managing them is an issue. Separation of time and distance is another threat that challenge international human resource management performance; the differences limit the rate of contact between head managers and the subsidiary managers; there lacks the close interaction and sharing of ideas and issues becomes an issue. The differences may also mean that some policies successfully implemented in a certain area are not applicable in another area. This may hinder the entire multinational operation. Gauging the level of performance of such an employee Different countries have different intellectu al power; there are people who have highly innovative power while others have an abstract power. When managing people of this two areas, the personnel managers may have the problem of determining the best method that should be used in both cases and yet offer satisfactory results. The differences of human beings capabilities affects the implementation of uniform policies to enhance performance since some countries may call for an innovation based appraisals while others calls for abstract power appraisal approach; whichever the approach, then the managers have a challenge developing best performance appraisal models to implement in their organizations (DiStefano Maznevski, 2000). Suggestions on ways that the problems can be minimized Despite the challenges offered by international performance appraisal methods, the process is crucial and needs to be handled with utmost care and strategic moves adopted to ensure that the method has been successfully been handled. The approach that h uman resources management will take will be of utmost good to the company and should ensure that all areas have been covered effectively. The following are the best approaches to such an international appraisal strategy: Developing uniform appropriate performance standards Since the company is same, the top management should come up with uniform corporate goals, objectives, mission statements and vision statements; they should define the expectations that stakeholders have from an organization, these policies cut across the board and employees in whichever the country should understand the role they have to play in their attainment. Managers’ acts as agents of shareholders so they should be allocated some expectation that they should deliver form their teams and country of operation. With the overall expected and promised goals, human resources should get their position; every employee is seen to be performing a certain duty to fulfill the goals directly or indirectly. Huma n resource departments should develop the performance standard that they want from every employee, having attained; they are the same standards that are used in performance appraisal. The corporate goals should be taken as overall but should be some goals that countries should be following depending with their potential and the capability that they have. To ease the burden of appraisal, every country should have a competent team of human resources managers who have been empowered to appraise the performance of employees in the areas of their operation and if need be offer some advice to the higher office on the best approach they need to implement when managing their human capital. The regional performance appraisal should be empowered to offer sound advice to the top management on the right policies unique to a certain country they should implement (Bullen Eyler, 2010). Using a balanced score card for evaluation Management should develop a balanced score card performance managem ent approach; balanced scorecard assist human resources to look into qualitative and qualitative performance of an employee. It does not concentrate on one area of the human capital but goes into other specific areas that need to be appraised for an effective operation of the business. When developing standards, human resources department looks into two main aspects: qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative standards are the deliverables that an employee is expected to produce when offered maximum support and mentorship from the management and the organization as a whole (Kaplan Norton, 2001). The tangible outcome that can be attributed to a certain employee when supported by other members of the team should be the vocal point in quantitative performance standard setting. When setting the expected level of quantitative output, the company should ensure that the potential of a certain country has been gauged. It may be tricky to have similar expectations across the board but the e xpectation should reflect the potential that a certain country has. There are different ways of coming up with the target that every individual is likely to get; the most common method is a top down approach where the top managers define the corporate goals and general target, then divide it among the departments that produce quantitative results (Takeuchi, Chen Lam, 2009). The next performance standard that an organization should set is qualitative performance; the performance is more concerned on the general attitude and conduct of employees within the organization; this is of importance especially when dealing with different cultures and environments. It is important to note that depending with the country of operation, the way people portray their feeling and attitudes is different, so there is need to ensure that the right approach has been used. The quantitative standards that are set in an organization are mostly the human resources policies that an organization should uphol d; they include ethical conduct, the general accepted organizational behavior and the corporate principles. The attitude and behavioral appraisal method can be universal but the expected results weighed against the level of social-cultural environment of the country of operation (Trudel, 2009). Culture intelligence approach With the diverse cultures that multinationals gave to deal with, there is need to understand the culture of the country of operation, the culture of the people should be crucial in determining the approach to measuring their performances, attitudes, level of output, and expectations. When the company understands what is actually happening in a certain country, then the managers can be able to implement the best policies and strategies that meet the needs of human capital in a certain country. The strategy of approach is mostly different in different countries thus there is need to have their cultural believes well-noted (Triandis, 2006). Other than culture inte lligence tools, managers should have root human resources management approach, this is where when they are diversifying and probably sending an expert, experts with a certain cultural affiliation should be sent to those countries that have similar cultural back ground (Hampden–Turner Trompenaars, 2006). Conclusion Managing diversity is a challenge that faces multinational businesses; they have to deal with people of different cultural backgrounds and varying labor laws. Developing effective performance management strategic assists multinationals to manage diversity in an appropriate manner and be able to tap diverse intellectualism and talents available in the diverse human capital. The best approach that multinationals should use is a micro-management approach where at country of operation level, they have competent human resources department with the authority to performance manage employees in that locality them advice the human resources department at corporate level. Re ferences Bullen, M. L., Eyler, K. (2010). Human resource accounting and international developments: implications for measurement of human capital. Journal of International Business Cultural Studies, 31-16. DiStefano, J. J., Maznevski, M. L. (2000). Creating Value with Diverse Teams in Global Management. Organizational Dynamics, 29(1), 45-63. Fernandez-Alles, M., Ramos-Rodrà ­guez, A. (2009). Intellectual structure of human resources management research: A bibliometric analysis of the journal Human Resource Management, 1985–2005. Journal of the American Society for Information Science Technology, 60(1), 161-175. 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